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Which God Exists

Most Christians do not really think very deeply about this question. Neither do most atheists. But this question is central to any discussion of whether or not God exists. Most Christians think of God as a person, but who knows everything, can do almost anything and desires only what is good. Most atheists think that the world would not be the way it is now if such a person really does exist. But ...

Against Universals

Universals are things that have a single name but many instances. There are many instances in universals in real life. Humanity, planets, stars, atoms and rocks are all universals. So is unity, redness and straightness. But while the existence of such universals is demonstrable, there is good reason to believe that they do not exist. A universal is contradictory and cannot exist. The existence of ...

Are Self-Evident Truths Sufficient?

One of the early questions that I asked is whether or not self-evident truths are sufficient to build a proper philosophy on. I whether or not there is a method to determine self-evident truths. I think that these questions are related. There is no a priori method to determine whether or not self-evident truths are sufficient because there is no general method to determine self-evident truths. The...

Good and Evil: Illusion?

In my last post, I showed that there were three theories on just what good and evil were. Either “good” and ” evil” are applied to something because of something in the thing or because of something in the person applying the label. If it is something in the thing, then it is either in the thing as a whole or in part. But if “good” and “evil” are in ...

Truth in Speech

In the previous two posts, I have discussed the issue of both trust and wisdom in speech. But deception and lying are different ways of avoiding or denying the truth. It is that issue that I am considering now. Only communications can be true or false. So it is obvious that the issue of truth is unique to speech. There are two questions that need to be answered: the nature of truth and the value o...

Understanding Ethics

We all know that certain acts are morally wrong: murder, theft, slander and kidnapping. We also know that certain acts are morally right: helping the poor, healing the sick, educating the ignorant and freeing slaves. But there are other issues that are not nearly so clear. These gray areas include the environment, gun control and government regulations in general. In addition to these problems, th...

Normative Ethics

There are three areas of study that ethicists engage in: applied ethics, normative ethics and metaethics. In my last post I discussed applied ethics. Normative ethics is the study of what is right and wrong in general. The largest current controversy in normative ethics is how to determine whether a particular act is right or wrong. Consequentialists believe that an act is right if it leads to goo...

Reasoning in Philosophy

In my previous post, I showed that reasoning is different depending on which science the reasoning is about. Since I am specifically interested in philosophical knowledge, it is best to limit ourselves to a discussion of reasoning within philosophy. As philosophy is the second highest science, it can only take principles from theology. Any time that a philosopher does this he is open to criticism ...