The significance of the concepts
of “culture”, at first glance, hinders its definition
as a philosophical category
. But, having tried to consider the phenomenon
of culture holistically from a philosophical point of view, one can somewhat generalize the definition of culture.
If we consider culture not just as an appendix to the life of divergent phenomena, but as a system, an organic whole, like Ernest Cassiere’s, in which language, myth, science and art are specific “symbolic forms”. The philosophy of culture is identical with the philosophy of symbolic forms, but cultural science interprets these symbols, according to which the breadth of understanding of the concept of “culture” is somewhat narrowed.
Interesting is the culturological concept of Max Weber, where the concept of culture is viewed as a value; the historical process is represented as a superstructure of types of cultures that have their own essence, forms, the rhythm of development.
Max Scheler considered culture as the sphere of ideal (formed by art, religion, philosophy) and real, material (economy, state, family) needs that are contained in the structure of the spirit of man.
As we see, the concept of culture is closely connected with the essence of man, human activity. Moreover, culture without a person is simply not possible. Despite the diversity of the definition of culture from a philosophical point of view (environmental compliance, spirituality, materiality, universality, individuality, sociality, historicity), one can single out the unifying feature. Through these aspects, culture is highlighted as an expression of the essence of a person concerning the surrounding world.
Thus, culture is the world of man, in which the surrounding reality is humanized to be more intelligible, and the inner world of man is transformed into nature.
As a philosophical category “culture” is universal because the concept of culture as an active sphere of human and world relations reflects the content of the basic question of philosophy, and also through culture a person has the opportunity to comprehend and solve it.