Epistemology in the system of philosophical knowledge is a division
of philosophy in which such problems as the nature of knowledge, its possibilities and boundaries, the relation of knowledge and reality, the subject and the object of cognition are studied, the universal
prerequisites of the cognitive process, the conditions for the reliability of knowledge, the criteria for its truth, forms and levels of cognition and a number of other problems. The term “gnosiology” comes from the Greek
words “gnosis” – knowledge and “logos” -a concept
, teaching, i.e., the doctrine (concept) of knowledge. The first entirely gnosiological concept is the logic
The stages in the development of epistemology are connected with the expansion of the range of the cognition factors under consideration. The first stage: first cognition was considered as the activity of the mind. Therefore the technique of thinking was studied, and the main epistemological discipline was logic. The second stage: approximately from the XVII century, the sensory, practical experience, the connection between reason and feelings, the technology of experimental research, and the main epistemological discipline becomes methodology. The third stage: in the twentieth century, a variety of ways and bases of cognition is taken into account, some new epistemological disciplines are formed: phenomenology, the theory of implicit knowledge, semiotics, hermeneutics. The main problem of epistemology is the definition of knowledge. The main practical task of epistemology is the improvement of knowledge. The main epistemological disciplines consider the various components of the cognitive process.
In the system of diverse forms of the attitude of man to the world, knowledge or acquiring knowledge about the world around the human being, its nature and structure, the laws of development, as well as about man himself and human society occupy an important place.
Cognition is the process of getting new knowledge by a person, the discovery of an unknown earlier. The effectiveness of cognition is achieved primarily by the active role of man in this process, which is the reason for the need for his philosophical consideration. In other words, we are talking about clarifying the prerequisites and circumstances, the conditions for moving towards the truth, mastering for this purpose the necessary methods and concepts.
Philosophical problems of cognition form the subject of the theory of knowledge, or epistemology. “Gnosiology” is a word of Greek origin (gnosis is knowledge and logos is a word, a doctrine). The theory of cognition answers questions such as cognition, what are its basic forms, what are the laws of transition from ignorance to knowledge, what is the subject and object of cognition, what is the structure of the cognitive process, what is truth and what is its criterion, as well as many others. In philosophy, the term “theory of knowledge” was introduced by the Scottish philosopher J. Ferrier in 1854.
Cognition is the process of purposeful, active representation of reality in the mind of a person. In the course of cognition, various facets of being are revealed, the external side and essence of things, phenomena of the surrounding world, as well as the subject of cognitive activity-the person-are exploring the person, that is, himself. A cognizant subject is a person – a being endowed with intelligence and mastered the arsenal of cognitive means accumulated by mankind. The society as a whole, which in its history has accumulated a huge volume of material and spiritual culture – the bearers of the results of cognition, is also a cognitive subject. The object of knowledge is the surrounding world (being in all its diversity), namely that part of the surrounding world, to which the cognitive interest of the subject is directed. An adequate and identical reflection of an object by a subject is called truth.