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Psychology

Taxonomy (Or Why Modern Biological Categories are Wrong)

Aristotle was the first to systematically lay out various living things in the world. According to him, they could be divided into three categories: plants, animals and rational beings (humans). Insofar as biology is concerned, human beings are animals. Therefore, there were two biological categories: plants and animals. Carl Linnaeus extended this knowledge to cover many new kinds of plants and a...

Stories & Philosophy

Stories are fun to read, a part of everyone’ s life and something that is interesting to discuss. Any philosophical analysis begins with a definition and a discussion of the existence of the topic, so I will start there. Stories are a connected series of event(s) involving at least one character. Anything that fits this definition is a story. Some of these stories will be good and many will ...

Abortion is Murder, Abortion is Legal

I was reading an short post by Jessie Golem on the topic of abortion recently. Jessie argued that abortion should not be denied to those who were victims of rape. She had a number of other arguments as well, but I wish to focus on this one. If abortion really is murder, and murder is wrong without exception, then abortion cannot be permitted even in the case of rape. Before examining this, we must...

Rationality and Inquiry

Rationality is something that we do not always understand. Inquiry is something that everyone uses at some point or other. But rationality is more than grammatically correct form and some combination of truthfulness or truth-aptness. Rationality is a presupposition of all inquiry. In other words, every question presupposes that there is a rational answer to that question. If I ask ” where ar...

Intelligent Design Theory

Intelligent design theory began with the publication of Behe’s book Darwin’s Black Box in 1996. Since then a number of other books have been published both for and against intelligent design. Wikipedia is especially unreliable  on this issue because accuracy requires reading the primary sources rather than secondary source commentaries. In fact, much of the secondary sources are polemical against ...

Limiting Political Power

Political power can be distributed either top-down or bottom-up, but it can also be limited in various ways. There are a number of ways to limit political power. It may be limited by a higher authority, by a lack of need, by a shared moral system or by a shared agreement. These ways of limiting political power describe all of the possible ways to limit such power. The first way to limit political ...

Political Power

I have shown in a previous series that the existence of a government, the power to tax, imprison and fine individuals and the power to regulate are all necessary on occasion and sometimes morally permissible. However, this does not show that the acts and powers claimed by our present governments are either necessary or morally permissible. Before such things can be discussed one must understand th...

Coercion and Rights

In the two previous posts I have shown that a common anarchist argument against taxes fails and that the community may morally obtain your property, even if you must be coerced to do so. So it is simple to show that coercion is sometimes permissible in the case of property rights. Governments also claim the right to (under some circumstances) confine someone forcibly, kill them, and regulate behav...

Community Assistance

In a previous post, I explained that a common anarchist argument against taxes fails. But that does not mean that taxes are moral. It just means that one argument against taxes fails. This is my positive argument for taxes (or something like them). I will say upfront that this argument does not justify the taking of any tax whatsoever. Nor does it mean that taxes ought to be paid in all circumstan...

Is Government Necessary?

One act of entrusting the common good of humanity (as applied to the many) to some within that many creates both a country and a government. But anarchists must believe that such an act is not necessary. For anarchism to be a viable theory, it must be possible for an anarchist to exist in a society. If the only possible way to live in anarchism is to be a hermit, then the philosophy is not viable....

The Common Good

I have previous said that the act that creates government is the act that entrusts some people with the common good. But what is the common good? One way one might be an anarchist is to deny that there is a common good either in general or for governments. This is impossible because every group of people has a common good arising from what unifies those people. The common good is not the good of t...

What is Government?

I have been reading some libertarian news recently, and some libertarians believe that the world would be better without government. They rarely bother to investigate what government is and whether or not it is even possible to be without government. Government is not a material thing, nor is it a natural substance. Government is an immaterial artifact. By examining the action that creates governm...

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