Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik (early 12th century, Wadi Ash, now Cadiz, Spain – 1185/86 Marrakech, Morocco) – Arab-Muslim philosopher, representative of the Arabic-speaking peripateticism (falsafy), scientist and doctor. He studied philosophy and medicine in Seville and Grenada. From 1154 he lived in North Africa, was the secretary of the ruler of Septa and Tangier, then the visor and court physician of the Almohad caliph Ab’ Ya’qba Yehsuf, and aged, gave way (in 1182) the place of the medical lab of caliph Ibn Rushd, retaining the post of the vizier. In the funeral of Ibn Tufail, the Caliph himself participated.

Ibn Tufail was a man of broad intellectual and artistic interests (in particular, he expressed ideas in astronomy that went against the accepted Ptolemaic system in his time). From his scientific and philosophical heritage, only the “Story of Hay, son of Yakzan” is preserved. In this allegorical Robinsonade, first it tells how a human child appeared on the uninhabited island, from the depths of nature itself, and how he comprehended the world, first physical, and then metaphysical, down to the First Cause, God.

The second part of the book tells of the acquaintance of Haya with the inhabitants of the neighboring island, living according to God-sent law. In communicating with them, Khai was convinced that philosophical truth, although essentially identical with the revealed one, is the lot of “elected” but not “general public”, not capable of allegorical interpretation of sacred texts and abstract thinking, and therefore it would have it is harmful and harmful to disclose the hidden, philosophical knowledge.

Translated into Latin and then into many European and Oriental languages, the novel of Ibn Tufayla became after the “Thousand and One Nights” one of the most popular works of Arabic literature in the world.