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Being and Essence

Being

It is self-evident that something exists. We know this simply from the fact that we are aware of something. Absolutely all of our knowledge entails this. When we speak of something that exists in general, we call that being. The two most fundamental questions in regards to being are what is it and why is it. We know that something exists. To speak of that something in general, without speaking of ...

Particulars and Universals

The problem with names is that they can always be applied to more than one thing. But the existence of unique individuals is self-evident. It is these two facts that create a puzzle for philosophers. Anything that can be applied in many cases is a universal. But something that is unique is a particular. But why should we believe in particulars at all if particular have nothing that makes them uniq...

Names, Particulars and Universals

Names can refer to both universals and particulars, but not in the same way. The difference between a personal name such as Stephen and a universal such as red is that names of particulars never have content insofar as they name particulars. They are a pure reference. Names of universals, on the other hand, always have content. Reference and content are two elements of speech. Every sentence will ...

Against Universals

Universals are things that have a single name but many instances. There are many instances in universals in real life. Humanity, planets, stars, atoms and rocks are all universals. So is unity, redness and straightness. But while the existence of such universals is demonstrable, there is good reason to believe that they do not exist. A universal is contradictory and cannot exist. The existence of ...

Essence and Existence

I have shown that there are two problems with universals and particulars. If there were a way to distinguish between individuals and universals, then there would be a solution to these problems. The distinction between an existence and an essence is such a thing. Each individual has a distinct existence but a universal has a common essence. Universals are any thing that has a name. For example, re...