Paradigm (from Greek: παράδειγμα – example, sample):
- the concept used in the antique and medieval philosophy to characterize the relationship between the spiritual and the real worlds;
- theory (or model of problem statement), adopted as a model for solving research problems.
Plato saw in ideas the real-life prototypes of things, their ideal patterns, having a true existence: the demiurge creates everything that exists, looking at the immutably existing as a model, or prototype. This line in the interpretation of the idea as a paradigm, a pattern, found its continuation in Neoplatonism; in the middle-century philosophy, it was expressed in the doctrine of the creation of God in the world in its image and likeness.
In German classical idealism, the doctrine of the paradigm unfolds in terms of analyzing the principles of external and internal unity of various formations, in the doctrine of the prototype or the prototype of the systemic organization of all bodies. According to Schelling and Hegel, the principles of ordering and coherent organization of natural bodies characterize a spiritual, ideal prototype.
In the philosophy of science, the notion of the paradigm was introduced by the positivist G. Bergman to characterize the normativeness of the methodology, but it became widespread after the work of the American historian of physics Kuhn. In an effort to build a theory of scientific revolutions, Kuhn proposed a system of concepts, among which an important place belongs to the notion of a paradigm, i.e. “…recognized all scientific achievements, which over a period of time give a model for posing problems and their solutions to the scientific community” (Kuhn T. Structure of scientific revolutions). The paradigm shift is a scientific revolution. Kuhn’s interpretation of the notion of paradigm aroused a discussion, during which the ambiguity of this concept was noted (K.Popper, I.Lakatos, M.Masterman). Ambiguity of the notion of the paradigm, under which Kuhn is understood and the theory recognized by the scientific community, and the rules and standards of scientific practice, and the standard system of methods, etc., required him to revise and concretise this concept, which was implemented in the concept of “disciplinary matrix “And its components (symbolic generalization, the metaphysical part of the paradigm, the value and the actual models of solving research problems). At the same time, the concept of a paradigm is used in the theory and history of science to characterize the formation of a scientific discipline, the description of the various stages of scientific knowledge (pre-paradigmatic, i.e., when there is no theory recognized by the scientific community and paradigmatic) for analyzing scientific revolutions. It is also used in the methodological analysis of various scientific disciplines (psychology, sociology, chemistry, linguistics).
In Marxist literature, the concept of a paradigm is used in analyzing the processes of artistic and scientific creativity (artistic canons, styles in art and thought styles in science). K. Marx and F. Engels drew attention to the fact that various sciences were taken as samples and put forward to the fore in the concepts of science: if F. Bacon saw in the qualitative physics the basis of the natural sciences, Hobbes proclaimed geometry “the main science”. A.Gramshi, criticizing positivistic scientism, noted that for a long time science was identified with the natural sciences. “Experimental and natural sciences were in a certain era a” model “, a” model “, and because social science (politics and history) sought to find an objective basis that would be scientifically suitable to give them the same precision and strength, what natural sciences had, it is understandable that these latter were addressed in the creation of the language of social sciences.” Recognizing the general principles of the activity of scientists, certain cultural standards, standards and methodological regulations that act as models for solving research problems within a single scientific discipline, the methodology of science rejects the absolute unification of the real methodological and subject variety of scientific disciplines.