Karl Marx (1818-1883) is the creator and creator of dialectical materialistic philosophy.
In his philosophical conception, from the very beginning, Marx continued to solve the traditional problem of alienating man in society, for European thought, where private ownership of the means of production prevails, and he sought ways to overcome this alienation. This problem is discussed in the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844. Since the basis of any alienation is economic alienation or alienated labor, then in the future, Marx deals with a conceptual analysis of the nature and features of the functioning of the capitalist system of the economy. At the same time, the problems of a particular person go to the background, are replaced by social ones. Marx highly appreciates the dialectical method developed by Hegel, but for him, the driving force is not the spirit but matter. Marx emphasizes explicitly that for him the ideal is not the demiurge of everything, but only “material, transplanted into the human head and transformed into it.”
The driving, material force in society is the active relation of man to the surrounding world, the primary link of which is material production. The matter under such an interpretation is not reduced to some unchanging substance; it is historical and dynamic. This is the basis for the corresponding theoretical and cognitive concept. In it, Marx reinterprets the traditional ontology of materialism, where only the cognitive subject is active, and the cognizable object is always passive.
In Marx’s conception, the researcher in the process of cognition deals not with nature in itself, but with nature, given “subjectively”, as “human sensory activity, practice.” Thus, cognition is a complex process of interaction between the subject and the object. “The question of whether human thinking has the objective truth is not at all a question of theory, but a practical question.” Marx is not a traditional, cabinet philosopher, meditating on the truth in itself. In his opinion, philosophy is called upon to help not only to explain the world but also to change it.
When solving social and philosophical problems, Marx continued the traditions of the Enlightenment and Hegel, believed in science and progress, considering the development of society as a natural, historical process of changing socio-economic formations. The interpretation of these problems was affected by the influence of the dominant classical scientific paradigm.
Together with Marx, Friedrich Engels contributed to the development of these philosophical ideas. Already in the early work “Sketches for the criticism of political economy” (1843). Which influenced the formation of Marx’s views, manifested the materialistic position of Engels. Throughout his life, he worked out the materialist concept of being. His role in the development of the new theory and its conceptual enrichment in the works of Anti-Duhring, Dialectics of Nature (unfinished), Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophy is significant. Engels paid particular attention to the development and conceptualization of the essence of the dialectical way of thinking in comparison with the metaphysical approach to the world, comprehending the achievements of natural scientific knowledge.
The philosophy of Karl Marx is of a materialistic nature. It was not without additions; therefore the philosophy that Karl Marx founded during materialism is usually considered materialistic-dialectical. Besides, Karl Marx introduced some innovations: historical materialism – no one before him has studied the progression of materialistic culture (it manifests itself in the change of formations) – but he is considered only as part of dialectical materialism, and not separately functioning philosophical views.
The essence of Marx’s philosophy was the social stratification of society. According to his teaching, people who enter into communication form definite classes, or groups, by interests-production relations. Production relations can be detected both between employees of the same rank and in the criteria of the subordinate-superior. In this respect, the characteristic of a subordinate or worker is his labor. Karl Marx introduced the concept of alienation of labor, which means that the result of a person’s work does not reach him, he is disunited with the product of his job, and therefore alienated from labor.
Existing production relations give rise to the economy of society. The economy is the basis for the social structure, that is, for the institutions of society, generated by the social relations. It is these institutions and social relations that are called the notion of “superstructure” in the philosophy of Karl Marx. The basis and superstructure are mutually influenced by each other.
The socioeconomic formations, which we have already mentioned, touching upon the theme of historical materialism, are formed depending on the type of production relations and production forces. For example, the primitive level was characterized by a slight development of tools, and the social structure was at the stage of its inception.
The more production resources are exposed to development, the more they become, the more the relations of production change, so the basis that is the basis of the superstructure begins to modify the latter. That is the development of labor, the more developed the society with all its class differences, social relationships, social institutions.
From the philosophy of Karl Marx, the logical conclusion is that the more advanced the level of the economy, the more developed the material society. It is production relations that regulate the course of development of society; they are the connecting element of the economy. Also, they determine the course of development of society; they are also its driving force, that is, they constantly push the course of history forward, make social change.
With the help of labor, the man himself is transformed. It develops, so the practice is so valuable and useful as a driving force. The alienation of labor, which often happens, must be overcome, according to Karl Marx, then a person will not feel lost, inferior. Work belongs to the person who created it, and not to those conglomerates that take away and absorb the result of the labor of a simple worker. Human development within the framework of Karl Marx’s philosophical views is dialectical: on the unity of opposites, the transition from quantity to quality (labor), the concept of man and, as a consequence, of production relations, and therefore of the entire basis that influences the superstructure, is being developed and developed.
Philosophy Marx regarded as a guide to action, referring to the revolutionary transformation of society. The revolution was to mark the beginning of a new history that would not know class antagonisms. Marxist philosophy was not only rationalistic but also scientist-oriented. Despite various approaches in general, both positivism and Marxism proceeded from the recognition of the great role of scientific reason for solving a complex of social, economic, ecological, anthropological and other problems.
Marxism, as a philosophical trend, defends the position of the primacy of matter. Consciousness is secondary and is the form and ability of highly organized matter to extol the reality, and since it is closely related to human activity, it can not be a direct departure of matter, because it is aimed at changing it.
The concept of dialectical materialism, which appears in key Marxism, reflects nature as a whole, where objects and phenomena are interdependent among themselves. The world around us is fleeting and variable – everything flows and moves, something appears and something disappears, but these events are interconnected. The struggle and unity of opposites is the law that reflects the source of development. All phenomena and objects of nature have different foundations in their essence and only because of their eternal struggle is such a mystery of life as development, moving forward.
The law that reflects the development mechanism to the fullest is the transition of quantitative changes to qualitative changes. Gradual quantitative changes that accumulate in nature go into a sharp qualitative leap. The third law of dialectical materialism is the negation of the negation. Each new stage in its essence denies the previous stage. Thus, the direction of development appears before us. For the first time, a system of an ascending, spiraling model of development was proposed. Each previous stage remembers and has in its stock the quality of the previous one, but moving on to a new turn, gives something new, not similar, denying already received earlier.
Historical materialism – the interpretation of history on a Marxist basis – fully reflects the essence of these three laws. First, history has a cyclical process, and also a person acts as a subject of social activity. Labor forms a person. He helps him to pass to a new stage of development, a new qualitative stage, but at the same time, he gives the man himself from the essence. We weaken our attitude to other people, to social groups, and thus we realize ourselves as a person, as a labor person.
The alienation of a technical person results from the fact that he (a person) does not rule over those goods that are the result of his labor activity. The bourgeois wholly enslaved the working class, therefore, being in alienation, a person feels like an outcast. To destroy this alienation, a person needs to work for the sake of the results of his work and to enjoy it. Thus, proclaiming the primacy of the proletarian (working) class, Marx and Engels communicate the ideas of the communist society, where the need to consume the goods will be lost, and their appearance and distribution will be a natural commodity exchange, so labor will not prevail over man, but will be its qualitative characteristic shaping factor.