Subjectivity characterizes the subject or is derived from the subject and his activity. Historically, the subjective was understood in classical philosophy (beginning with Descartes) as a special inner world of consciousness, unquestionable and self-reliant, to which the subject has direct access. In this capacity, the subjective was opposed to the objective world of physical things and events (including the body of the subject) as existing outside the subjective and as not authentic. The opposition of the subjective and the objective has given rise to many problems in classical philosophy that have proved difficult for her to solve: how to prove the existence of the external world and how you can know it; How can one know anything about other subjects and their subjective world?
Meanwhile, Kant has already shown that the so-called the internal experience dealing with the subjective world is no more direct than the external experience, and it is necessary to assume the latter. The development of modern philosophy and psychology gives reason to believe that the subjective, experienced by us as purely “internal” and purely personal, is not originally a data, but is constructed by the subject in communicative interactions with other people within the framework of a certain historically given culture, therefore, the very degree of experience subjective as “internal” may be different under different conditions. The subjective cannot be regarded as a special world inhabited by such “objects” as experiences, representations, images of the memory of imagination, desire, etc., but is a way of the orientation of the subject in the external world.
The formation of consciousness, in general, cannot be purely internal. So, for example, the pain seems to be such an experience that only subjectively, belongs only to me and is accessible only to me “from within” (an example of L.Wittgenstein). Meanwhile, this experience is included in a certain kind of communicative discourse and, as a rule, is expressed outside: in the form of exclamations, certain grimaces, movements, etc. (this is also a means of communication). The expression “outside” in this case is not something external to the expressed and in fact is a way of its comprehension, and therefore also a way of constituting. Of course, I can hide my experience of pain from others, but this concealment is something secondary, possible only when the experience of pain is already constituted.
However, communication and other actions, being generated by the subject and in this sense being subjective, at the same time do not belong to the subjective world in its classical sense but belong to the intersubjective sphere, which goes beyond the opposition of the subjective and the objective.
This opposite does not exist in some other cases. So, the perception of the objective world assumes also the self-perception of the subject. Therefore, the subjective and the objective are the two poles of perception. But self-perception, in this case, does not refer to the states of the inner world of consciousness, but to the perception of the body of the subject and his place among other objective objects and events.
The subjective also includes the illusions of perception and delusion of thinking. The first arises as a consequence of the application of an inappropriate perceptual hypothesis in the extraction of sensory information or the artificial termination of the perceptual examination process. Misconceptions usually arise when mental activity is inadequate to the object under study. At the same time, the subject can accurately describe what is directly given to him, and yet be deluded. Such, for example, are the illusions of the movement of the Sun in the sky or illusions about oneself, self-deceptions.