In my previous posts, I have discussed both the modern and illusory theory of goodness. The classical theory claims that goodness is not a property or an artifact. To say that something is good is to say something about the thing as a whole. There has only been one theory of classical goodness – that goodness is identical with being.

According to this theory everything that exists is good insofar as it exists. So everything is good. This means that there is no such thing as an “essence of evil” because an essence exists, and all existing things are good. This theory lacks the problems of the modern theory of goodness because a thing is good as a whole.

There are two separate problems with this theory. The first problem is that goodness and being do not seem to be the same thing. Analysis of language will not show that they are the same thing. But according to this theory, goodness and being are the same thing described differently.A But there needs to be some kind of proof for this. Without such a proof, the theory has no good reason to be believed. After all, we all refer to actions, people and artifacts as “being evil”. But if being is goodness, then such identifications are not as simple as they seem.

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