In my previous post, I explained that the principles of reasoning could not be proven by reason. Those principles are the rules that all reasoning must follow. They are also what all reasoning must begin with. I previously categorized these into two categories: the rules of reasoning and the starting points of reasoning.

The starting points of reasoning is the statements, knowledge or facts that reasoning must begin with. In order for reasoning to arrive at true conclusions, it must begin with true premises. But truth is adding one name to another or separating one name from another when they are added or separated. But this means that recognizing that names are joined or separated cannot be a matter of reasoning in all cases. Furthermore, naming cannot be a matter of reasoning in all cases either. So the starting points of reasoning are divided into two cases: recognition of unity or disunity and recognition of what something is.

The rules of reasoning are those rules that all reasoning must follow. The first and most important of these rules is the principle of non-contradiction. This rule is that it is never true that something both is and is not. We can never use the same names to join and separate what is. The second principle is that reasoning does not have a genus. All reasoning begins with premises and ends with conclusions each of which is intended to bring knowledge about what is. But neither being nor knowledge have a genus. Therefore, reasoning about being and knowledge does not have a genus either. This means that there is no ultimate method of reasoning, no set of primal rules of reasoning of anything of the kind. The two general principles of reasoning are both negative for this reason.

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